[EXPAND Description]Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; It is a surgical branch which works on the removal of congenital or acquired anomalies, deformities of shape and function and correction of body image. Plastic is a word from the Greek “plasticos” and means “shaping”, “making a mold”. Reconstructive is a Latin word and it means “to do it again”.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; Deals with any surgical problem that occurs on the entire body surface. Events that distort the shape and function of the body may be congenital, traumatic or acquired. For example; Congenital cleft palate-lip, joint finger (syndactyl), vascular mass (such as hemangiomas); Traumatic burns, face injuries due to traffic accidents, various cuts and organ breaks; Acquired various skin and soft tissue tumors, chronic wounds are within this surgical discipline.
Defects, deformities, pathological events (tumors, cysts, infections, etc.) in bone (especially face-to-head and hand bones) and cartilage roofs (such as ear and nose cartilages) are also within the plastic surgery field. For this, besides classical surgical methods, microsurgery, laser systems, endoscopy and various chemical agents and medicines can be used.
In summary; Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery works to repair any defects (voids) affecting the skin and bones on the entire body surface. In doing so, the basic rule is to repair the tissue with similar tissues, whichever tissue is lost.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon’s interests:
· Facial deformities – Asymmetries, congenital masses, rare face slits
· Cleft lip-palate
· Craniofacial – maxillofacial anomalies (eg jaw, facial and skull deformities, irregularities, deficiencies
· Orthognatic surgery (Jaw closure disorders)
· Absence of ear lugs, scoop ear and other deformities
· Nasal defects, tumors, ruptures
· Saliva problems
· Congenital tumor, nevus (ben), masses, vascular malformations, hemangiomas
· Bone and soft tissue trauma of the face
· Maxillofacial surgery (bone defects with traffic accidents, tumors and other causes-fractures-shape and function disorders, jaw surgery
· Head and neck tumors and repairs of their defects
· Absence of breast, asymmetry or excess breast tissue
· Breast reconstruction after cancer
· Jinekomasti (Big Breast in Man)
· Congenital anomalies of genital organs (Epispadias, hypospadias, vaginal agenesis etc.)
· Repairs of genital organs, replantation of broken organs,
· Chest and abdomen wall defects
· Hand Surgery (traumas, tumors, finger transfers, finger repairs-extension etc.)
· Deficiencies and deformities in hands and feet
· Peripheral nerve problems (trauma, neuropathies, defects, masses)
· Skin and soft tissue tumors
· Damage caused by acute burns and burns of deformities, contractions, shrinkage, electrical and chemical substances in soft tissues
· Various infections, radiation and other effects of skin and subcutaneous wounds
· Chronic injuries (such as pressure wounds, venous injuries, diabetic foot injuries)
The rule for repair in Plastic Surgeon is to choose the simplest and least harmful method first. Priming of a wound is primarily thought of as repairing (suturing), and if there is a loss of tissue, grafting (skin patching) comes into play. When this method is not appropriate (deep and complex tissue loss, open bone and tendon injuries), flaps should be used. The flaps are planned by considering the local flaps (for example, skin flaps) and composite flaps (containing more than one tissue) in accordance with the status and location of the tissue defect.
The basic rule in plastic surgery is to repair the tissues that are closest to the missing tissues. Both plastic surgery and, if necessary, aesthetic surgery, autologous tissues (taken from one’s own self) are preferred. However, donor sites for autologous tissues or other sources (homografts, heterografts and alloplastic materials) may be used if the patient is not suitable. For example, in large burns, skin grafts (skin patches) taken from healthy areas of the patient are preferred.
If these areas are inadequate, other people can use homografts and even heterografts from animals. Other than autografts, they are used as temporary biological cover in the human body. Another example may be given for bone loss. In facial bone loss, bone is taken from other body regions and applied to the defect region. However, if this source is insufficient or not available, allplastic materials (porous polyethylene, hydroxyapatite, titanium etc.) can be used.[/EXPAND]